The ~Texas~ Mustang Project's Blog

Working for better management options and cohabitation through compromise and communication for the American Wild Mustang

Archive for the ‘Eagle Gather Feb 2010’ Category

Grazing Info for the Ely District of Nevada, August 27, 2010

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on August 27, 2010

The following information is just about anything and everything I could find today on the Ely District’s Grazing on public lands. The information, links¬†and documents below range from Allotment Master Reports and Operator information to the Range Improvements of 2008. Ely FO has been a sore spot of sorts for me for quite some time as it seems they are bound and determined to rid the public lands of their jurisdiction of all wild horses and burros. Historically, they have done just that. Oh, and don’t forget to check out the land planning documents of the Ely FO… Interesting reads… Record of Decision and Approved Resource Management Plan¬†

Wild Horse Gathers 2010

FYI: Ely District Field Office’s Contact Info:

Bureau of Land Management Ely Field Office
702 North Industrial Way, HC 33 Box 33500
Ely, Nevada 89301
775-289-1800

Term Permit Renewal Environmental Assessments 

Grazing Permit Renewal Summaries for 2010

Advertisements

Posted in BLM, Chokecherry, Daily Posts, Eagle, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, Ely FO, Moriah HMA, Mt. Elinore, Paymaster / Montezuma HMA Gather, Silver King HMA Gather | 2 Comments »

BLM News Release: Wild/Feral Horse Population Data Collected

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on July 9, 2010

Release Date: 07/09/10
Contacts: JoLynn Worley, 775-861-6515, jolynn_worley@blm.gov
News Release No. 2010-022

Wild/Feral Horse Population Data Collected

Reno, Nev. ‚ÄĒ Preliminary data from an aerial population survey conducted by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) of northwest Nevada and southern Oregon indicates there is a minimum of 4,200 wild/feral horses within this area, which contains 13 wild horse herd management areas (HMAs), including the five Calico Mountains Complex HMAs, 3 wild horse herd areas (HAs), and two national wildlife refuges.

The BLM and FWS concluded the inventory on June 28 after nine days and approximately 60 hours of flight time using a fixed-wing airplane, which will provide a scientifically-based estimate of the wild/feral horse population. The project area encompasses approximately four million acres of private and Federally-managed public lands.

This improved population survey methodology was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of BLM wild horse specialists. The methodology, called Simultaneous Double-Count with Sightability Bias Correction, used three observers to independently observe and record data on groups of individual horses. The methodology incorporates peer-reviewed techniques that have been used for decades to estimate wildlife populations around the world.

A statistician cooperating with USGS will analyze the preliminary data obtained during the inventory flights to provide population estimates with a 95 percent confidence interval. Inventory information relies on the ability of the aerial observers to see horse groups and is strongly dependent on the skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover.

The modeling and analysis to be completed will make adjustments to the preliminary data to account for animals not observed during the flight. The simultaneous double-count/sightability bias correction technique will provide more valid population estimates than the standard uncorrected aerial inventory method.

While the BLM does not have a date for the release of the final results of the inventory and necessary modeling work, preliminary data, which represent the minimum number of horses in each area, are shown below. The BLM/FWS will release the results of the analysis to the public when it comes available. The following numbers shown are direct counts of animals seen during the flight and include observed foals of the year.

Bureau of Land Management administered areas:

State/Herd Management Area (HMA) or Herd Area (HA) Direct Count
Nevada Calico Complex 5 HMAs
   Black Rock East HMA
   Black Rock West HMA
   Calico Mountain HMA
   Warm Springs Canyon HMA
   Granite Mountain HMA
NV/non-HMA areas
                                                     NV sub-total
69
140
436
342
154
136
1,277
   
OR/Beaty’s Butte HMA
OR/Pueblo-Lone Mountain HA
OR/South Catlow HA
OR/non-HMA areas
                                                     OR sub-total
377
19
0
4_
400
   
CA/Bitner HMA
CA/Carter Reservoir HMA
CA/Fox Hog HMA 
CA/High Rock Canyon HMA
CA/Massacre Lakes HMA
CA/Nut Mountain HMA
CA/Wall Canyon HMA
CA/New Years Lake HA
CA/non-HMA areas
                                                     CA sub-total
47
6
172
300
148
3
87
100
430
1,293
   
US Fish and Wildlife Service administered area:
USFWS/Sheldon-Hart Mountain
1,247
   
                                                  Inventory total 4,217

This cooperative effort will establish a base line population count and animal distribution in this large area. Past population surveys and gather operations have shown that wild/feral horses may move among a number of HMAs and the Sheldon and Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuges.

This population survey represents a point in time and that because of the free-roaming nature of the animals their movement between HMAs is normal and expected. While the total number of animals is expected to remain stable until next year’s foaling season, the numbers within each HMA will vary over time.

Pre-determined transects spaced 1 ¬Ĺ miles apart were flown at an altitude of approximately 500 feet above ground level and speeds ranging between 95 and 110 nautical mph. Data collected included the number of horses per group, type of topography, plant cover, activity of the horses, and other parameters that will be used to develop population estimates. All observed horse groups also had their locations recorded via GPS.

BLM and FWS are planning to return to the area later this fall for a second survey that will provide information on the herd movement and how that can affect population counts in the individual areas.

Map of survey area and locations where horses were observed.

The BLM manages more land – more than 245 million acres – than any other Federal agency. This land, known as the National System of Public Lands, is primarily located in 12 Western states, including Alaska. The Bureau, with a budget of about $1 billion, also administers 700 million acres of sub-surface mineral estate throughout the nation. The BLM’s multiple-use mission is to sustain the health and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. The Bureau accomplishes this by managing such activities as outdoor recreation, livestock grazing, mineral development, and energy production, and by conserving natural, historical, cultural, and other resources on public lands.

–BLM–

Nevada State Office   1340 Financial Blvd., Reno NV 89502

Posted in BLM, Calico Complex Gather 2009-2010, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, Ely FO, McGavin Peak Gather, Ruby Pipeline, LLC, Tonopah Field Office, Tuscarora Wild Horse Gather | 6 Comments »

The Declaration of Independence – From a Wild Horse & Burro Point of View

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on July 4, 2010

How many of those among us have actually read and understood the document now known as the Declaration of Independence? Any of us who have made it through middle school grade levels know what the text of the document is; most of us had to memorize the first few paragraphs for a test grade. But how many of us actually understand the text and words?

I began this post early this morning. Needless to say, I got a little bit sidetracked. However, following the white rabbit down the bunny trail has led me to a new and awe-inspiring understanding of this great document.

I wonder now if Thomas Jefferson knew then while he sat by candle light with a quill and ink pot just how much his humble and yet powerful words on a piece of parchment paper would affect the American people. Certainly, he did not know then what I know now of how it so accurately applies to the plight of the American Wild Mustang and Burro.

It has been said that Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration in a format that was intended to be performed, as in acted out. After coming upon this discovery today, I would have to agree with this wholeheartedly.

I ask that you follow with me on a trip to the imagination: As you listen to the following reading, think of the Colonial Americans… Then think of them as the American Wild Mustang. Don’t stop paying attention once you hear the first few paragraphs that we’ve all heard a million times. The truths come after them.

As I stated, I started this post early this morning in order to pull a few more resources together for a slide show / video showcasing the Equine contributions to the American Military. It is greatly shadowed by the light of the video above but I like it LOL.

Posted in BLM, Calico Complex Gather 2009-2010, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, Ely FO, McGavin Peak Gather, Ruby Pipeline, LLC, Tonopah Field Office, Tuscarora Wild Horse Gather, You Be the Judge Series | 4 Comments »

Upcoming Wild Horse & Burro Gathers, Summer 2010, Updated List 06/22/2010

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on July 3, 2010

The following are wild horse and burro gathers that are proposed to be conducted this summer. This list is up to date through June 22, 2010.

State Agency HMA Complex Start Date End Date # To Be Gathered # To Be Removed Horses/Burros
NV BLM Eagle (outside) *   3/10/10 9/29/10 50 50 Horses
NM BLM Bordo   7/7/10 7/17/10 107 50 Horses
OR FS Murderers Creek   7/1/10 9/30/10 50 50 Horses
OR FS Big Summit   7/1/10 9/30/10 50 50 Horses
OR BLM Ligget Table   7/1/10 9/30/10 40 40 Horses
NV BLM Owyhee Owyhee Complex 7/9/10 8/1/10 660 595 Horses
NV BLM Rock Creek (outside) Owyhee Complex 7/9/10 8/1/10 358 358 Horses
NV BLM Rock Creek  Owyhee Complex 7/9/10 8/1/10 250 50 Horses
NV BLM Little Humbolt Owyhee Complex 7/9/10 8/1/10 80 30 Horses
OR BLM Cold Springs   7/11/10 7/16/10 187 112 Horses
OR BLM Murderers Creek   7/18/10 7/23/10 100 100 Horses
NV BLM Moriah   8/10/10 8/12/10 72 72 Horses
UT BLM Confusion Conger 8/14/10 8/25/10 300 250 Horses
UT BLM Conger Conger 8/14/10 8/25/10 260 230 Horses
CA BLM Twin Peaks   8/9/10 9/23/20 2301 1853 Horses
OR FS Stinking Water   8/18/10 8/23/10 215 175 Horses
CO BLM Piceance/East Douglas HMA   8/25/10 9/3/10 380 340 Horses
NV BLM Reveille   9/4/10 9/8/10 235 195 Horses
NV BLM Montezuma   9/9/10 9/13/10 155 155 Burros/Horses
UT BLM Winter Ridge HA   9/15/10 9/23/10 200 200 Horses
NV BLM Paymaster   9/14/10 9/16/10 45 45 Horses
NV BLM Silver King   9/18/10 9/30/10 600 500 Horses
CA BLM Twin Peaks   8/9/10 9/23/10 302 205 Burros
NV BLM Reveille   9/4/10 9/8/10 235 195 Burros
NV BLM Montezuma   9/9/10 9/13/10 155 155 Burros/Horses
AZ BLM Cibola   9/25/10 9/30/10 100 100 Burros
*Will Continue thru September as they are found outside the HMA. Total Horses Planned to be Gathered 6,645    
Total Burros Planned to be Gathered 792    
     These totals are for the summer months of 2010 only. Total Horses Planned to be Removed 5,450    
      Total Burros Planned to be Removed 655    

Posted in BLM, Calico Complex Gather 2009-2010, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, Ely FO, McGavin Peak Gather, Tonopah Field Office, Tuscarora Wild Horse Gather | 13 Comments »

Re-Posting a Message from Willis Lamm, LRTC – A Definite ‘Must Read’

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on May 11, 2010

Tracie,

Feel free to use this if you like.

– – –

In November 2008 I was at a meeting where a rather influential person in the anti-horse camp was lamenting that the horse advocates were making headway because of their use of the internet.¬† “If something happened, within 24 hours these people will have 5,000 emails and letters sent out to politicians.”¬† The point of this little speech was that the anti-horse folks had learned their lesson and were going to use the internet for their own advantage.

A few months later I was at a restaurant late at night when things were quiet and amazingly ended up at a table within earshot of some guys planning strategy.¬† Their conversation caught my attention when I heard the phrase “those horse people.”

To make a long story short the people who want to get rid of wild horses have been getting organized.  They are bringing everyone of common interest into their fold.  They have developed action alert networks so they can also generate an instant flood of emails and letters.  Some of these people have also carefully analyzed our camp and have identified our weaknesses and they are taking advantage of our weaknesses.

We have not been evolving at the same rate as they have and our advantage in this battle is eroding.

One of the most effective tools used by the other side is misdirection.  These people are primarily motivated by profits. Profits (and losses) tend to keep people focused.  The motivation of the wild horse advocacy camp is more esoteric and therefore is more easily manipulated.

The anti-horse camp knows that some in our camp are emotionally reactive and they can and do use that weakness against us.¬† While we certainly have folks jumping to conclusions on their own, a carefully planted suggestion in the right forum predictably gets some advocates in a fuss over things that often have never happened.¬† When we have tried to source out false rumors, they typically resolve in Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in BLM, Calico Complex Gather 2009-2010, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, McGavin Peak Gather, Ruby Pipeline, LLC, You Be the Judge Series | 46 Comments »

BLM Rangeland Inventory, Monitoring, & Evaluation Reports

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on March 21, 2010

Rangeland Inventory, Monitoring, & Evaluation Reports 

Each fiscal year since 1989, the Bureau of Land Management has compiled a national, BLM-wide Rangeland Inventory, Monitoring, and Evaluation Report. This report contains 7 tables and has undergone various modifications through time. Tables 1, 2, and 3 contain results on the BLM’s vegetation inventories and trend. Tables 1 through 3 are presented to satisfy Section 201(a) of The Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) of 1976, as amended, and the Public Rangelands Improvement Act (PRIA) of 1978, both of which affirm¬†Congress’s intent to have BLM prepare and maintain on a continuing basis an inventory of public rangeland conditions and trends. Table 4 reports how livestock grazing allotments are categorized. Tables 5 and 6 report on monitoring activities and plans implemented on allotments. Table 7 reports on results of evaluations of Standards for Rangeland Health.

This report is generated by the BLM National Operations Center in Denver, Colorado.

Contact Mike “Sherm” Karl at sherm_karl@blm.gov or at 303-236-0166 for more detail.

PDF versions of the reports are listed below for Fiscal Years since 1989. Click on the year to download the report.

Current Year (Fiscal Year 2009)

Previous Years
1989 1993 1997 2001 2005
1990 1994 1998 2002 2006
1991 1995 1999 2003 2007
1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

 Content Manager: Sherm Karl, sherm_karl@blm.gov

Posted in BLM, Calico Complex Gather 2009-2010, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, McGavin Peak Gather, Ruby Pipeline, LLC, You Be the Judge Series | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Personal Message from T. to all of the TMP Contributors…

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on March 20, 2010

For Matt, Sandra, Louie, Suzanne, R. Thompson, Reveil39, Cowgirlfirepony, Lisa, KT, Mar, Makendra, Ginger, Tom¬†and all of you who have been a part of The Mustang Project’s Blog,

or TMP’s Blog for short LOL…

I tell ya… In my opinion – for what it’s worth LOL – I have to say that you all here on TMP’s Blog are just about the smartest bunch of folks I have had the pleasure of “bouncing” with.¬†

Bouncing is a term used here around my nek-o’-da-woods that we use when we have a brain-storming session or bounce ideas off of each other to find better solutions. It’s even funnier when we get¬†that solution because we tend to bounce like Tigger!¬†

Seriously, you guys are more than I could have hoped for when I started this whole crazy thing. You think outside of the box; you don’t let your convictions waiver; and you dang well know how to look past the first two lines in a document to find the most important info. And what’s more, you are all bigger and better than to let the concept of playing on your emotions rather than your own intelligence make your decisions for you.¬†

I am so very proud to be friends and advocates alongside each of you. Lord knows, I couldn’t have done any of this by myself, and I certainly¬†wouldn’t have come into so much knowledge and information as I have since bouncing with you guys. So from the bottom of my litl’ ole¬†pea pickin’ heart and for the horses and burros, much obliged to each of you!¬†

Matt, the work you do is invaluable. The accuracy and truthfulness with which you conduct your research is priceless, to say the least. Without your efforts, there are so many pieces of information, knowledge, and education that we would not have had so easily. Your ability to convey the bottom line of a subject is simply uncanny sometimes. Thank you graciously for all of your hard work, long nights, and patience! I think above all else, I have to thank you for showing me the ‚Äúrest of the story‚ÄĚ when I first became involved. I have always trusted your guidance, and it has never let me down. Friends like you are hard to find. I‚Äôm glad that I have been so fortunate.¬†

Sandra, girl, I tell ya, the two of us are truly like two peas in a pod! I know they say opposites attract, but in this case, I think two great minds that are alike have come together LOL! You have been a constant companion to me, and better, you have kept me focused when I strayed from my tasks at hand. For this, I simply have no words to thank you. Yes, for once I am speechless! Quick, call the press! You have stayed up on the phone with me to keep me awake while driving and you have laughed at all my stupid Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in BLM, Calico Complex Gather 2009-2010, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, McGavin Peak Gather, Ruby Pipeline, LLC, You Be the Judge Series | 15 Comments »

Cast your vote in the poll…

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on March 11, 2010

Cast your vote and let everyone know your opinion… Click below and vote! ūüôā

Do you want the BLM to completely stop all gather operations?”

Posted in BLM, Calico Complex Gather 2009-2010, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, McGavin Peak Gather, Ruby Pipeline, LLC, You Be the Judge Series | 10 Comments »

Tentative Gather Schedule FY 2010 (pdf)

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on February 11, 2010

Tentative Gather Schedule FY 2010 (pdf) РWhere, when, how many, and has the corresponding field office to each scheduled gather hyperlinked in the right column. As well, the title is hyperlinked to the Nat. WH&B webpage where this information is updated & the Completed Gather Statistics webpage hyperlinked at the bottom of the page.

Note: For informational purposes ONLY. This schedule was copied¬†from the National Wild Horse & Burro Program’s website and does not reflect¬†prior¬†or subsequent¬†cancellations. I, Tracie Lynn Thompson, ¬†do not take any responsibility for any changes that occur to this schedule or for any errors in this schedule. Like I said, just for informational purposes.¬†The main reason for this pdf is because of the embedded links – corresponding field office to each scheduled gather.

Posted in BLM, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, McGavin Peak Gather | Leave a Comment »

Fed‚Äôs Wild Horse Program Faces New Lawsuit Over Another Huge Roundup

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on February 5, 2010

Fed’s Wild Horse Program Faces New Lawsuit Over Another Huge Roundup

February 04, 2010 @ 1351hrs

At Issue: BLM Helicopter Stampede and Capture of 495  Wild Horses in Eastern Nevada

Washington, DC (February 4, 2010)¬† ‚Äď The national law firm of Buchanan, Ingersoll & Rooney yesterday notified the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) that it intends to sue to stop the Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM)‚Äôs¬† planned roundup of nearly 500 wild horses living in the Eagle Herd Management Area in eastern Nevada.¬† The roundup, scheduled to start in mid-February, would leave just 100 horses behind to roam over 670,000 acres of public land.

Follow link to read more…

Posted in BLM, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010 | 3 Comments »

Upcoming Gathers… Info

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on January 27, 2010

Side notes of interest:    

The following lists the tentatively scheduled gathers starting with Calico and going through to Black Mountain in March 2010. The title is hyperlinked¬†to the BLM webpage where this information can be¬†found. As well, each BLM field office listed in the last column is hyperlinked to that office’s webpage. ¬†¬†

 Tentative Gather Schedule FY2010  

HMA Dates Gather Remove Field Office
Calico Mountains Complex 12/28/09 – 2/28/10 2,787 2,523 Winnemucca, NV
McGavin Peak 1/24/10 -1/29/10 20 20 Alturas, CA
Eagle 2/7/10 – 2/20/10 727 643 Ely, NV
Cibola-Trigo 3/4/10 – 3/10/10 90 90 Yuma, AZ
Hickison 3/2/10 – 3/15/10 92 75 Battle Mountain, NV
Alamo 3/11/10 – 3/14/10 35 35 Lake Havasu, AZ
Black Mountain 3/10/10 – 3/15/10 100 100 Kingman, AZ

BLM Field Office Contact Info for Antelope Gather… Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in BLM, Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010, McGavin Peak Gather | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Nevada BLM Offices Contact Info…

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on January 20, 2010

 

 

  

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIORBUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT
Nevada
 

Office Directory


Nevada State Offices (District Offices Listed Below)

   State Director: Ron Wenker
   Associate State Director: Amy Lueders
   Phone: 775-861-6590
 

   Deputy State Director, Natural Resource, Land & Planning:
   Mike Holbert 
   Phone: 775-861-6464

  

   Deputy State Director, Minerals Management: 
   Gary Johnson
   Phone: 775-861-6576 

   Deputy State Director, Support Services: 
   Bob Scruggs (Admin. Officer) 
   Phone: 775-861-6644 

   EEO Manager: DeAnna Garrett 
   Phone: 775-861-6584 

   Chief, Office of Communications: Doran Sanchez
   Phone: 775-861-6586 

   State Office Employee Directory 

 

BLM Nevada State Office
P.O. Box 12000
Reno NV 89520
1340 Financial Blvd.,
Reno, NV 89502

  

Front Desk: 775-861-6400
Fax: 775-861-6601
Email: nvsoweb@nv.blm.gov

Office hours: 7:30 am-4:30 pm, M-F

  

Public Room: 775-861-6500
Fax: 775-861-6606
Email: nviac@blm.gov
Public Room hours: 9:00 am-4:30 pm, M-F 

National BLM Wild Horse & Burro (WH&B) Program
(located in the Nevada State Office)
WH&B Management Specialist:
Dean Bolstad, 775-861-6583
WH&B Operations Manager 
(Palomino Valley Center):
John Neill, 775-475-2222
Click here to go to the National WH&B Center 
in Palomino Valley, Nevada
 
 

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Daily Posts, Eagle Gather Feb 2010 | Leave a Comment »

Eagle HMA Gather + Spring Valley Wind, LLC=Fast Track Initiative…

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on January 11, 2010

Well, there’s¬†the upcoming Eagle HMA Gather (Feb. 2010)¬†,¬†and then there’s the Spring Valley Wind Project.¬†The Eagle HMA Gather comes not even on the heels but in the very¬†midst of the much debated Calico Gather. (Eagle HMA EA Dec 2009) According to the Spring Valley Wind Project EA, (Spring Valley Complete Pack v8)¬†the construction schedule is as follows:

 

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Eagle Gather Feb 2010 | 1 Comment »

After four years, Spring Valley Wind project nears EA review…

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on January 11, 2010

From WindAction.org:

After four years, Spring Valley Wind project nears EA review

November 04, 2009 by Rudy Herndon in The Ely Times

It might seem like federal regulators are fast-tracking the development of¬†Nevada’s first commercial wind farm. But the 160-megawatt Spring Valley Wind project has actually been in the works for over four years, as the developer gathered additional¬†information sought by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). A private contractor is currently putting the finishing touches on the draft Environmental Assessment for the 66-turbine project, which would be located on BLM-administered lands between State Route 893 and U.S. Highway 50 as it veers north toward Sacramento Pass.
 
It might seem like federal regulators are fast-tracking the development of Nevada’s first commercial wind farm.
But the 160-megawatt Spring Valley Wind project has actually been in the works for over four years, as the developer gathered additional information sought by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Eagle Gather Feb 2010 | Leave a Comment »

Renewable projects in Nevada get BLM guarantee for fast-tracking…

Posted by Texas Mustang Project on January 11, 2010

http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2009/dec/29/several-renewable-projects-nevada-get-blm-guarante/

Renewable projects in Nevada get BLM guarantee for fast-tracking

By Stephanie Tavares (contact)

Tuesday, Dec. 29, 2009 | 1:58 p.m.

The Bureau of Land Management has guaranteed fast tracked decisions on 24 renewable energy projects and seven transmission lines across the West, including several projects in Nevada.

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Eagle Gather Feb 2010 | Leave a Comment »